The outcome or prognosis with hypospadias repairs is generally good and there is continual investigation into new techniques and improvements. The procedure is however not without risk. The incidence of complications can be reduced with proper preventative measures.

The most common complications are bleeding, haematoma, swelling, wound infection, skin necrosis, fistula and penile torsion (twisting). Complications depend on the type of hypospadias, the severity, surgical technique and age of the child. In order of frequency postoperative fistula is the commonest followed by swelling and penile torsion.


Postoperative nursing management is important as well as involvement of the parents. Parental education on post operative care is a key to reduction in complications.

A haematoma, a collection of blood, is a potentially dangerous complication which may result in infection of the graft and flaps. Swelling may be excessive involving both the penis and scrotum. Infection is rare but localised infections do occur. Severe infection can lead to disruption of the repair and requires that immediate action taken.